The most unusual inhabitants of the deep sea
The black sea is very suitable for kids: summer storm rare here – because the Black sea is small, the wind is harder to rock the waves ; W here there is almost no dangerous sea animals, and in water less salt, and it doesn’t sting the eyes. Here is to learning how to dive, first to get acquainted with the underwater world.
The black sea is surrounded by land, but it’s not the lake – the Bosporus and the Dardanelles coedine added it to the Mediterranean sea.
The Black sea flows into many rivers, so the salinity of its surface waters is low: 17 ‰ – grams of salt in a liter of water. Due to the low salinity reduced the biodiversity of the Black sea: the inhabitants of the seas and oceans can not tolerate salinity below 20 ‰.
Surface water of the Black sea is less salty and lighter, similar in temperature to the air ; in the summer it warms up. in winter it is cooled. It is familiar to us Black sea: in it, we swim and dive, catch fish.
C ovsem other – deep waters of the Black sea: from 50-100m – to the bottom, lying at a depth of two kilometers is more salty and heavy. their temperature is always constant and: o S. 9 – properties of the waters of the Black sea
Desalinated surface water is almost not mixed with the more saline deep waters: it prevents the penetration of oxygen into the depths of the Black sea. Deeper than 200 meters – the oxygen in the water of the Black sea is missing, the plants and animals there can not live, but live bacteria that break down down the remains of life and produce the hydrogen sulfide.
The black sea is one of the youngest seas of the Earth, 8000 years ago it was a lake; the Black sea Ecosystem continues to change before our eyes: changing sea levels, changing flora and fauna of the Black sea – new marine invasive species, and some of those that lived h ere before – disappear. For example, many of the black sea mollusks. whose shells we find on the beaches today – is already extinct: they destroyed one of the most ruthless predator of the Black sea, Pacific the introduced gastropod mollusk RAPAN.
Rivers flowing into the Black sea, carry in their waters a lot of nutrients; thanks to them and the sunlight in the water column grow invisible to us unicellular algae – the phytoplankton. They can be found in every drop of water at the sea surface – and be seen through the microscope and with an electron microscope to see how the small inhabitants of the sea.
Tiny marine plants in the water column – are eaten by microscopic marine animals – zooplankton. protozoa – ciliates, amoebas, small crustaceans, other marine invertebrates and their larvae, fish larvae; this ecological group of marine organisms and includes some large animals: large jellyfish and ctenophores is also the plankton.
Wildlife Black sea – amazing. Can bro dit knee-deep in the water near the sandy beach – and a lot to see: crabs, hermit crabs. almost unnoticeable bottom fish Black sea gobies, and markerami flounder, red mullet and grey mullet, sea mouse, sea cow and sea needle; carefully observe them – try to understand. the way they live.
The most diverse and interesting underwater world of Black sea rocky shores. In shallow water – colored multicellular algae of the Black sea, run across the stones motley fish – blennies. crabs, sea anemones grow.
Deeper – the dense jungle of Cystoseira is the main algae of the Black sea in the coastal zone; they live and build their nests fish greenfinches, on the branches of algae glide a miniature sea snails and shrimps jump. Here lurk the largest stone crab, the brightest fish of the Black sea – trooper. And on top of CZK forests of the underwater sweep schools of fish – mullet, horse mackerel. Animals and plants Th R tion of the sea – not only large and bright – but also the smallest, hiding among rocks and seaweed – all interesting, each of them its place in the life of the sea.
Deeper – Spicer s. fish s -lestock I. larger fish of the Black Sea – the Croaker, sea rock perch, sea Karas and Lasker and subaric; on top of rock – encrusting animals-epiphytes of sponges, bryozoans, hydroids, polychaete worms, ascidians. and other, the most unusual, the inhabitants of the Black sea. And where the end of the rocks, and starts stretching into the depth, covered with sand, shells and silt and the Black sea shelf at the depth where usually get only the divers in the cold water of the sea live Stingray Fox, flounder turbot, gurnard and spiny shark Katran.
That life in the Black sea is less diverse than on a coral reef. but the Black sea itself is small compared with the ocean – there is also the advantage: the Black sea – easy to study ; in many respects the ecology of the Black sea is more clear to researchers. The Black sea ecosystem responds quickly to external stimuli – be it climate change or human impact – fisheries, construction in the coastal zone, pollution.