Electrical means of protection of marine life
Electrical means of protection of marine life – from whom are they protected and how the water in the fish forms the electric current today, we will talk. What threatens such marine life that Nature has given them an amazing gift to beat the enemy shock? Many, probably, have heard about the amazing tool of self-defense from the rays. Guess?
Electrical means of protection of marine life – stingrays
Yes, we now talk about electric rays. They are spread quite widely, lived in almost all warm seas, sometimes swim in the Black sea. Just distinguish the 40 species of electric rays, from tiny (length 12-15 cm including the tail) to giants 2 m in length and weighing 100 kg. of the Most famous view — marble scat, Latin for “torpedo of Marmorata” — gave his name formidable naval weapon, the torpedo.
Unlike many other stingrays and manta rays, electric — bad swimmers. The pectoral fins have small, tail short and broad, with a small blade on the end. Typically, the ramp lies at the bottom, in the silt or sand, waiting for prey. She is to appear next, and a few short, but strong discharges stun the victim.
Manta rays are capable of electric shock to kill fish weighing 2-3 kg. Sharks and other enemies also have bad voltage during the discharge reaches 200-300 volt(typical home electrical outlet voltage 220 volts), and such attacks Stingray can produce up to 30 in a row.
Stepped on Stingray or trying to catch people (many unknowingly attracts bright, colorful painting of marble Stingray) may lose consciousness from the touch of electroshock devices: in water electricity acts much stronger than on land. Noted and deaths: from the shock stops the heart, but most people who have lost consciousness, just drowning.
Electric organs of the skate are placed on the sides and on the back, closer to the head. It greatly change the muscles, the weight of which may amount to one-sixth of the total weight. The muscle fibers are turned into small plates, due to the chemical reaction and produces electricity.
Plates connected to the columns up to 400 plates each, and only the Stingray has such columns about five hundred! The columns accumulate the generated electric charge, which is used as needed. Fully discharge cramp restores your combat ability in about half an hour.
Electrical means of protection of marine life – eels
There are fish, the discharge of which is even stronger. It’s an electric eel that lives in some rivers and lakes of South America. At a length of slightly more than a meter he is able to create a voltage up to 650 volts! However, the current is less than the Stingray, and the current in fresh water is distributed worse than in the sea, so that the impact of the discharge on the person not much stronger.
Still, locals fear unexpected encounters with this fish, so in those places where electric eels a lot, through the river crossing precautions. The most effective of them to drive through the Ford scheduled a herd of cows. They are less susceptible to shocks electric eels than humans, and fish spread out away from the noisy herd.
However, there are fishermen who catch such dangerous prey. They wait until caught in a net or a trap-cart acne will cease to resist and use up the charge, then carefully taking it out.
Electrical means of protection of marine animals catfish
In the Nile and other rivers of West Africa are small, not more than a meter, an electric catfish. Their blow can reach up to 350 volts, but it is much weaker than the rays or eels.
Electrical means of protection of marine life – the astrologer
And living in the Black sea is a distant relative of our perch — the astrologer from enemies protected by poisonous spines (by the way, dangerous to humans), but electric organs has his. They are located on the head and do not serve to protect.
The discharge emitted by the astrologer, very weak, but creates around the fish an electric field. Everything that enters this field in their own way distorts it, and the astrologer perceives this signal is about the same, as do the radar planes and ships.
Therefore, the astrologers and well versed in the murky waters and in complete darkness. Waiting for production they can burrow into the sand, hiding even outstanding other fish eyes: because “locator” prompt, when there will be another fish, and note, how big it is.
Electrical means of protection of marine life
Scientists have found these electrical “locators” in many fish. Some fish feel changes in the electromagnetic fields better, some worse. In addition, it was found that electrical pulses and fields are used by fish and other cases, for example for communication with other canines, to signal danger, for concerted action in large stocks.
Most of these powers appear in the denizens of muddy and silty rivers. Assume that the electric organs of sense can be and deep-sea fishes, but they are still too little studied.
But it is proved that electric ray uses its abilities not only for hunting. Sensitive to changes in the electric field of the cell he’s located on the head and sides. Weak impulses he constantly sends and sees not only what is seen through the eyes. “Locator” was so perfect that several species of stingrays refused to use the eyes.
These blind fish, hunt fairly large depths, where the vision helps slightly. Apparently, live eyeless the rays isn’t all bad!