Black sea

Black sea – an inland sea basin of the Atlantic ocean. The Bosporus connects to the sea of Marmara, then through the Dardanelles with the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The Kerch Strait connects the sea of Azov. North sea cuts deeply into the Crimean Peninsula. On the surface Black sea water passes the border between Europe and Asia Minor.

A characteristic feature of the Black sea is complete (except for some anaerobic bacteria) absence of life at depths greater than 150-200 m due to the saturation of deep layers of water with hydrogen sulfide.

The climate of the Black sea, due to its mid-continental situation, mainly continental. The black sea coast of Caucasus and the southern coast of the Crimea being protected by mountains from cold Northern winds and as a consequence, have a mild Mediterranean climate and South-East of the Tuapse — humid subtropical climate. A significant impact on the weather over the Black sea has the Atlantic ocean, which originates most of the cyclones at sea bringing bad weather and storms. In the North-East coast, especially in the area of Novorossiysk, low mountains are not a barrier to cold Northern air masses, which, moving through them, cause a strong cold wind (Bora), the locals call it “Nord-OST”.South-westerly winds usually in the black sea region brought a warm and wet Mediterranean air mass. As a result, for the greater part of the territory sea is characterised by warm wet winters and hot dry summers.

The black sea fills the insulated cavity, located between Southeast Europe and Asia Minor. This depression was formed in the Miocene epoch, during an active orogeny that divided the ancient Tethys ocean into several separate water bodies (of which more later, except the Black sea, formed the Azov, Aral and Caspian seas).

Black sea depression consists of two parts — Western and Eastern, separated by show, which is a natural extension of the Crimean Peninsula. The North-Western part of the sea shelf is characterized by relatively wide bandwidth (up to 190 km). South coast (owned by Turkey) and Eastern (Georgia) is more steep in nature, the shelf does not exceed 20 km long and indented by a number of canyons and valleys. The depths off the coast of the Crimea and the black sea coast grow extremely quickly, reaching elevations over 500 m to several kilometers from the coastline. Maximum depth (2210 m) reaches the sea in the Central part, South of Yalta.

The flora of the sea includes 270 species of multicellular green, brown, red benthic algae (Cystoseira, Phyllophora, zoster, kladofora, Ulva, enteromorpha, etc.). In the composition of phytoplankton in the Black sea — not less than six hundred species. Among them, dinoflagellates — loricate flagellates (Prorocentrum micans, Ceratium furca, small scripsiella Scrippsiella trochoidea, etc.), dinoflagellates (dinophysis, protoperidinium, alexandrium), various diatoms, etc.

The fauna of the Black sea is markedly poorer than the Mediterranean, in particular, there are no sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies, octopus, cuttlefish, squid, coral. In the Black sea is home to 2500 species of animals (including 500 single-celled species, 160 species of vertebrates — fish, mammals, 500 species of crustaceans, 200 species of mollusks, and the rest — invertebrates of different species), for comparison, in the Mediterranean — about 9,000 species. Among the main reasons for the relative poverty of the animal world of the sea: a wide range of water salinity; moderately cold water; the presence of hydrogen sulfide at greater depths.

In this regard, the Black sea is suitable for habitation fairly undemanding species, at all stages of development which do not require great depths. At the bottom of the Black sea inhabited by mussels, oysters, pecten, and the mollusc-predator Rapana, brought by ships from the Far East. In the crevices of the coastal cliffs and among the rocks is home to many crabs, there are shrimps, there are various kinds of jellyfish (the most common are Aurelia and kornerot), sea anemones, sponges.

Among the fish species in the Black sea, various species of gobies (the goby-Golovach, bull-whip, round goby, the goby martovich, goby Amur sleeper), Azov anchovy, black sea anchovy (anchovy) shark-spiny dogfish, flatfish-Glossa, flounder-Kalkan, a mullet of five species, lofar, hake (hake), sea ruff, barbula (common black sea mullet), haddock, mackerel, horse mackerel, black sea-Azov sea herring, black sea-Azov sea sprat, garfish, sea horse, etc. Meet sturgeon (Beluga, stellate sturgeon, black sea-Azov (Russian) and Atlantic sturgeon).

Among the dangerous fishes of the Black sea — sea dragon (the most dangerous — poisonous spines of the dorsal fin and Gill covers), and a noticeable black sea Scorpion fish, stingrays (sea cat) with poisonous spines on the tail. Birds common gulls, petrels, ducks-Pochards, cormorants and several other species. Mammals are represented in the Black sea two species of Dolphin (Dolphin-bottlenose Dolphin and Bonn conventions), the Azov-black sea common sea pig (often called Azov Dolphin), as well as the white-bellied seal. Some species of animals, inhabiting the Black sea often brought in through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles by the current or swim on their own.

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